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Briefings
10 Dec 2015

Report: Human Rights implications of climate change mitigation actions

Executive Summary This is a crucial moment in Paris. As global negotiations on a climate change agreement shape the future of our planet, Parties can decide on an approach that will protect people and the planet in the near and long term. Countries’ obligations under international human rights law are well established. These include the…

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Report: Using nature to pardon environmental pollution – Risks of agriculture sequestration carbon offsets

Agriculture supports the livelihoods of around a half of the world’s population, but is at the same time a notable source of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) driving climate change. As of one the options to tackle emissions in the sector, governments have been discussing to include additional agricultural activities into the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the United Nations Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) since 2011. Whether agricultural activities should be eligible for carbon offsetting programmes is not only topical within discussions in the UNFCCC but also within certain regional cap-and-trade schemes and discussions to establish a market based mechanism for international aviation emissions, expected to be adopted in October 2016 under the auspices of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Report: The missing ingredients for successful NAMAs

Summary Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are a promising vehicle for developing countries to pursue their mitigation and development objectives. Although this dual objective also characterizes other mechanisms under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), NAMAs are particular in the sense that they are a voluntary, country driven…

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Human rights accountability of climate action

Not only man-made climate change, but also certain actions to address climate change can directly result in adverse impacts on human rights. While well intentioned, certain climate mitigation actions implemented under the UNFCCC have caused harm to the environment and people—even infringing on rights to life, health, food, water and sanitation, housing, and culture, among others.

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Policy Brief: Integrating the Sustainable Development Agenda into the 2015 Climate Agreement

The new global Sustainable Development Agenda (Agenda 2030), officially adopted on 25 September 2015 by all United Nations (UN) Member States, has for the first time produced a stand-alone and universal climate goal. This explicitly recognises that the solutions to climate change and sustainable development are inherently interconnected and calls for coordinated efforts to address both simultaneously. From ending poverty and hunger, to addressing health, water and energy insecurity, to protecting oceans, forests and other ecosystems and preventing conflict, addressing climate change is critical to our collective ability to deliver on the SDGs.

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

CAPMAN Videogame flyer

CAPMAN is promoting actions that will limit emissions of CO2 and cap global warming at 1.5C. CAPMAN wants to make sure our planet remains a liveable and beautiful environment. However, like every superhero, CAPMAN has some evil enemies that are determined to stop him

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Policy Brief: The EU’s hot air – lifting the fog

A key consideration for the Paris treaty is how to incentivize real additional climate action while avoiding the laundering of bogus hot air credits. Under the Kyoto Protocol the lack of environmental integrity in market mechanisms has resulted in an 11 gigatonne hot air loophole. These hot air units are called AAUs which will not pose a problem for the Paris climate treaty since they cannot be used after 2020. However, the fate of the hot air units of existing domestic emissions trading systems still hangs in the balance.

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Policy Brief: Avoiding hot air in the 2015 Paris agreement

Since carbon markets make it cheaper to reduce emissions, some countries argue that they can take on higher targets if they use carbon markets. But to date this hope has been in vain: carbon markets have not led to higher commitments. On the contrary, mitigation commitments have been woefully inadequate, cap-and-trade systems have been severely oversupplied and offsetting mechanisms have been tarnished by insufficient environmental quality.

Briefings
30 Nov 2015

Policy Brief: Fossil and biological carbon: a tonne is not a tonne

Whether biological carbon credit should be traded in carbon markets is topical, with discussions ongoing in the UNFCCC, ICAO and the California Cap-and-Trade system. To date, compliance markets have rejected the eligibility of biological carbon offsets. They are right to do so. Fossil and biological carbon operate on different parts of the carbon cycle, and on very different timescales. Fossil carbon is permanent; biological carbon is potentially and frequently subject to rapid fluxes, whether natural or manmade. For these reasons, offset credits from REDD+, afforestation and reforestation or other biological systems should not be treated as fungible with fossil carbon, but should instead be addressed through other, appropriate, policy measures.

Briefings
20 Nov 2015

Recommendations related to the role of carbon markets in the Paris Agreement

Only very few countries have outlined in their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) that they will use international trading as a means to help achieve their climate goals. However, despite the limited role of markets expressed by most industrialised countries in their INDCs, such as the EU and the US, the political reality regarding domestic carbon pricing schemes looks different: jurisdictions responsible for 40% of the global economy have already implemented carbon pricing mechanisms.