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Empty targets? How to avoid trading of hot air under the Paris Agreement
Executive summary A very large number of carbon credits has been created through the three carbon markets of the Kyoto Protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and International Emissions Trading (IET). It is unclear what will happen to these mechanisms in the future and whether these old credits will be used under…
How to keep hot air out of the Paris Agreement – technical proposal
This document is addressed to Article 6 negotiators and Heads of Delegations at COP25, and proposes a detailed and structured text to address the issues described in the briefing “Empty targets? How to avoid the trading of hot air under the Paris Agreement”. Key numbers from the briefing: ● The potential supply of available CERs…
The Clean Development Mechanism: Local Impacts of a Global System
Executive Summary The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was set up under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to allow developed countries to buy emissions reductions from developing countries in the form of credits, called Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs). The objectives of the CDM are to help developed countries achieve their climate commitment and to assist developing countries in achieving sustainable…
Reconciling CORSIA and the Sustainable Development Mechanism
Executive Summary The Paris Agreement breaks away from the division of “developed” vs. “developing” countries which was enshrined in the Kyoto Protocol. It sets a new dynamic which will inevitably impact the next generation of carbon markets. It further sets new objectives for these mechanisms, such as contributing to overall mitigation of global GHG emissions and…
Pricing carbon to achieve the Paris goals
Executive Summary Putting a price on carbon, based on the polluter pays principle, has the potential to be a powerful policy tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fight against climate change. A carbon price can come in the form of a tax or a cap and trade system. With a tax, the price of polluting…
Good-Bye Kyoto: Transitioning away from offsetting after 2020
The 2015 Paris Agreement, which sets out the framework for global climate action after 2020, includes the establishment of the Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM). The goals of the SDM are to promote higher ambition that contributes to emission reductions and sustainable development, and deliver an overall mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.
The CORSIA: ICAO’s market based measure and implications for Europe
Executive Summary On October 6th, Member States of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) agreed on an offsetting scheme to compensate for emissions growth from 2020 levels. The new scheme, called the Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), falls short of achieving the goal of carbon neutral growth in 2020 (CNG2020), let…
Report: Human Rights implications of climate change mitigation actions, second edition
Executive Summary Countries’ obligations under international human rights law are well established. These include the obligations to respect, protect, and fulfill human rights, which are applicable in the context of climate change. Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) recognize that they must respect human rights—including procedural rights—in all climate-related actions….
Recommendations for Article 6 of the Paris Agreement
Carbon Market Watch welcomes the opportunity to provide input to the discussions on matters relating to Article 6 of the Paris Agreement.