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Briefings
7 Jul 2020

Cleaning up industry: why the EU’s strategy isn’t enough yet

Summary The new EU Industrial Strategy, released by the European Commission on 10 March 2020 as part of a larger industrial package, is the first sector-specific plan to be published since the European Green Deal was announced. It is an opportunity to put the EU economy on track towards climate neutrality, and put climate action…

Briefings
31 Mar 2020

Carbon Border Adjustments: Climate Protection or Climate Protectionism?

Pricing greenhouse gas emissions is one of the most important tools to decarbonise economies, and it has been implemented in the EU since 2005 through the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS). As part of this policy, the heavy industry benefits from large exemptions and receives nearly all of its allowances (i.e. pollution permits) for free….

Briefings
2 Dec 2019

Empty targets? How to avoid trading of hot air under the Paris Agreement

Executive summary A very large number of carbon credits has been created through the three carbon markets of the Kyoto Protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and International Emissions Trading (IET). It is unclear what will happen to these mechanisms in the future and whether these old credits will be used under…

Briefings
2 Dec 2019

How to keep hot air out of the Paris Agreement – technical proposal

This document is addressed to Article 6 negotiators and Heads of Delegations at COP25, and proposes a detailed and structured text to address the issues described in the briefing “Empty targets? How to avoid the trading of hot air under the Paris Agreement”. Key numbers from the briefing: ● The potential supply of available CERs…

Briefings
14 Jun 2019

Carbon markets 101 – the ultimate guide to global offsetting mechanisms

Introduction This briefing gives an overview of the current discussions under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement which establishes the foundation for market-based climate measures after 2020. It lays out key lessons from the Kyoto Protocol markets, highlights essential issues within the Article 6 negotiations, and provides recommendations on how to solve them. It concludes…

Briefings
29 Oct 2018

The Clean Development Mechanism: Local Impacts of a Global System

Executive Summary The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was set up under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to allow developed countries to buy emissions reductions from developing countries in the form of credits, called Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs). The objectives of the CDM are to help developed countries achieve their climate commitment and to assist developing countries in achieving sustainable…

Briefings
31 Aug 2018

Reconciling CORSIA and the Sustainable Development Mechanism

Executive Summary The Paris Agreement breaks away from the division of “developed” vs. “developing” countries which was enshrined in the Kyoto Protocol. It sets a new dynamic which will inevitably impact the next generation of carbon markets. It further sets new objectives for these mechanisms, such as contributing to overall mitigation of global GHG emissions and…

Briefings
20 Sep 2017

Pricing carbon to achieve the Paris goals

Executive Summary Putting a price on carbon, based on the polluter pays principle, has the potential to be a powerful policy tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fight against climate change. A carbon price can come in the form of a tax or a cap and trade system. With a tax, the price of polluting…

Briefings
18 Apr 2017

Good-Bye Kyoto: Transitioning away from offsetting after 2020

The 2015 Paris Agreement, which sets out the framework for global climate action after 2020, includes the establishment of the Sustainable Development Mechanism (SDM). The goals of the SDM are to promote higher ambition that contributes to emission reductions and sustainable development, and deliver an overall mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions.

Briefings
14 Oct 2016

The CORSIA: ICAO’s market based measure and implications for Europe

Executive Summary On October 6th, Member States of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) agreed on an offsetting scheme to compensate for emissions growth from 2020 levels. The new scheme, called the Carbon Offset and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), falls short of achieving the goal of carbon neutral growth in 2020 (CNG2020), let…