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31 Jul 2020

Carbon markets 101 – the ultimate guide to global offsetting mechanisms

Introduction This briefing gives an overview of the current discussions under Article 6 of the Paris Agreement which establishes the foundation for market-based climate measures after 2020. It lays out key lessons from the Kyoto Protocol markets, highlights essential issues within the Article 6 negotiations, and provides recommendations on how to solve them. It concludes…

2 Dec 2019

Empty targets? How to avoid trading of hot air under the Paris Agreement

Executive summary A very large number of carbon credits has been created through the three carbon markets of the Kyoto Protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Joint Implementation (JI) and International Emissions Trading (IET). It is unclear what will happen to these mechanisms in the future and whether these old credits will be used under…

2 Dec 2019

How to keep hot air out of the Paris Agreement – technical proposal

This document is addressed to Article 6 negotiators and Heads of Delegations at COP25, and proposes a detailed and structured text to address the issues described in the briefing “Empty targets? How to avoid the trading of hot air under the Paris Agreement”. Key numbers from the briefing: ● The potential supply of available CERs…

29 Oct 2018

The Clean Development Mechanism: Local Impacts of a Global System

Executive Summary The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was set up under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol to allow developed countries to buy emissions reductions from developing countries in the form of credits, called Certified Emissions Reductions (CERs). The objectives of the CDM are to help developed countries achieve their climate commitment and to assist developing countries in achieving sustainable…

26 Sep 2018

National Energy and Climate Plans and the transition to carbon-free societies – A civil society guide

Introduction In the coming time, Member States will need to develop National Energy and Climate Plans (NECPs), in collaboration with stakeholders, to show how they plan to meet their 2030 climate and energy commitments. This provides an opportunity for civil society to help shape the key national decisions for the next decade and to ensure that they…

31 Aug 2018

Reconciling CORSIA and the Sustainable Development Mechanism

Executive Summary The Paris Agreement breaks away from the division of “developed” vs. “developing” countries which was enshrined in the Kyoto Protocol. It sets a new dynamic which will inevitably impact the next generation of carbon markets. It further sets new objectives for these mechanisms, such as contributing to overall mitigation of global GHG emissions and…

16 Apr 2018

Understanding the Climate Action Regulation

How effective will the EU’s largest post-2020 climate tool be? Introduction The Climate Action Regulation (CAR), also known as the Effort Sharing Regulation, is Europe’s tool to reduce the climate impact of sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). Covering 60% of the EU’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the law sets…

6 Oct 2017

Cities at the forefront of climate action

Cities and regions are critically important for meeting and overachieving Europe’s climate targets. More than a third of the EU’s 2020 climate target will be delivered by cities, equivalent to 240 million tonnes of CO2 emission reductions (JRC, 2016).

20 Sep 2017

Pricing carbon to achieve the Paris goals

Executive Summary Putting a price on carbon, based on the polluter pays principle, has the potential to be a powerful policy tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the fight against climate change. A carbon price can come in the form of a tax or a cap and trade system. With a tax, the price of polluting…

19 Apr 2017

CLARA Briefing – Climate Action in the Land Sector: Treading carefully

This briefing, published by the Climate, Land, Ambition and Rights Alliance – CLARA –, has been endorsed by Carbon Market Watch. Executive Summary Climate action must be urgently scaled up to limit global warming. Action in the land sector is critical and necessary for achieving the Paris Agreement’s goal of limiting planetary warming to 1.5°…